Dixie State University Library

Dixie State University
Library & Learning Services

Library Service Guidelines

Rules & Procedures

Circulation Rules & Procedures

Dixie State University Library (DSUL) circulates materials to all Dixie State University students as part of their student fees. Faculty and staff may be issued non-expiring cards for the term of their hire. Circulation periods are set by library staff with input from the faculty library committee and are based on borrower type. Rules regarding circulation are posted at the circulation desk as are those that govern charges for overdue or lost items, vandalism or theft. These rules are also available in our Dixie State University Rules and Procedures Manual.

Instructors may put library items or their own materials on Reserve. These items may be used in the library for a limited amount of time, unless designated overnight by the instructor. Rules regarding Reserve are also available in the DSUL Manual.

Members of the community may use the library resources provided they do not infringe upon the rights of students to obtain information.

Certain materials such as microforms, Reference, Special Collections or any item from the Archives do not circulate. Special permission must be given by the library director to use these materials outside of the library; and in the case of Special Collections and Archives, in-house use is subject to guidelines in the DSUL manual.

All circulation records of the DSUL are quasi-public only, and information contained therein shall not be given to any member of the public other than the borrower to whom the information pertains, except pursuant to such process, order, or subpoena as may be authorized by law. Upon receipt of such process, order, or subpoena, the document served upon the library shall be reviewed by the university’s legal counsel and approval given before the information is released.

    1. DSUL does not offer business, corporate, or organizational privileges.
    2. Borrowers are responsible for all items charged on their accounts as well as reporting any change in name, address, email, or phone number.
    3. Lost or stolen cards should be reported to the Circulation Desk.
    4. Certain items, including those in Reference, Special Collections, and periodicals, do not circulate.
    5. Patrons with a DSU ID card (faculty/staff/student) may use the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) service.
      1. If a library charges a transaction fee, that charge is passed on to the patron.
      2. Loan periods are dependent upon the lending library.
      3. Community Borrowers do not have ILL privileges, but are encouraged to use the Washington County Public Library System.
    6. Courtesy overdue notices will be sent by email only. It is the borrower’s responsibility to promptly return items to the library.
    7. Fines are non-refundable, charged as a penalty for not returning checked out library materials by the due date. The following is a schedule of fines:
      1. General Collection: $100.00 replacement charge & $10 processing fee applied 30 days after due date.
      2. Hourly Course Reserve: $1.00/hour; $100.00 maximum per item.
      3. Daily Course Reserve: $10.00/day; $100.00 maximum per item.
      4. Interlibrary Loan: $1.00/day; $25.00 maximum per item.
    8. Fees charged for loss or damage to library materials are non-refundable.
      1. Patron is responsible for the cost of any item lost or damaged.
      2. Replacement amount charged is $100 for any item.
      3. A mandatory $10.00 processing fee is added to the cost for all lost or damaged items.
      4. The library does not accept replacement of a lost or damaged item with a similar copy.
      5. Items 30 days overdue are presumed lost and replacement and processing fees are applied.
    9. Collections: Fines and fees not resolved in the library within each semester will be transferred to the DSU Business Services Department for collection.
    10. Renewals: Reserve items and general collection items may not be renewed.
    11. Faculty, staff, and students can request items that are currently checked out through interlibrary loan.
    1. Student—a person enrolled in classes at Dixie State University for credit, full or part-time.
      1. Library card: Dixie State University ID Card. The student may also provide a picture ID along with their DSU ID number
      2. Expiration: Good for as long as the student is enrolled at DSU
      3. Checkout limit: 50 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    2. Faculty and Staff—faculty includes adjunct faculty in semesters of teaching assignments and faculty emeriti; staff includes full-time (benefited) or permanent part-time employees of Dixie State University.
      1. Library card: Dixie State University ID Card. The employee may also provide a picture ID along with their DSU ID number
      2. Expiration: conclusion of DSU employment
      3. Card limit: 100 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    3. Faculty or Staff Spouse—spouse of benefited employee of Dixie State University. Employee must request the card on behalf of his/her spouse.
      1. Library card: issued by DSUL
      2. Expiration: conclusion of spouse’s employment at DSU
      3. Card limit: 5 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    4. Concurrent enrollment student—high school student enrolled in DSU classes for credit is considered a university student.
      1. Library card: Dixie State University ID Card. The student may also provide a picture ID along with their DSU ID number
      2. Expiration: card must be validated each semester
      3. Card limit: 25 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    5. Upward Bound—student enrolled in the DSU summer program for selected high school students.
      1. Library card: Dixie State University ID Card
      2. Expiration: conclusion of program, usually mid-July
      3. Card limit: 25 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    1. Dixie State University Alumni—the borrower must present Alumni Card issued through the Alumni Office and picture ID.
      1. Library card: issued by DSU Alumni office
      2. Expiration: card must be validated yearly
      3. Card limit: 5 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    2. Utah Academic Library Consortium (UALC) Student or Faculty (reciprocal borrowing)—a student or faculty member who is currently attending classes or teaching at any UALC institution is covered by the UALC reciprocal borrowing agreement. The borrower must present the ID card of their school.
      1. Library card: issued by their home school
      2. Expiration: card must be validated each semester
      3. Card limit: 25 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    3. University Center Student (U of U graduate student)—person enrolled in a DSU University Center program. The program administrator issues a list of students enrolled in their classes. The students use either their university ID card or a library services card supplied by the program. If they do not have university ID cards, they must provide photo IDs and a copy of their current school schedules.
      1. Library card: varies
      2. Expiration: card is must be validated each semester
      3. Card limit: 25 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    4. Board of Trustees or Board of Regents members; Utah State Office of Higher Education employees—at the discretion of the library director.
      1. Library card: issued by DSUL
      2. Expiration: conclusion of term of service
      3. Card limit: 25 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    1. Washington County School District high school student—requires a signed agreement from the principal.
      1. Library card: issued by DSUL
      2. Expiration: May 1 each year
      3. Card limit: 5 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    2. Washington County School District Teacher/Principal—person employed by Washington County School District in an instructional capacity (this does not include student teachers, volunteers, paraprofessionals, assistants, or aides). Must show school district ID card.
      1. Library card: issued by DSUL
      2. Expiration: May 1 each year
      3. Card limit: 25 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: none
    1. Community Borrower—a resident of Washington or Kane County, at least 18 years of age, must show picture ID and proof of residency (driver’s license and utility bill or rent receipt).
      1. Library card: issued by DSUL
      2. Expiration: one year from date of issue
      3. Card limit: 5 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: $25.00 per year
    2. Community Borrower (out of state)—a resident of a county in Arizona or Nevada that adjoins Washington County may be granted privileges at the discretion of the library director. Must be at least 18 years of age. Must show picture ID and proof of residency (driver’s license and utility bill or rent receipt).
      1. Library card: issued by DSUL
      2. Expiration: one year from date of issue
      3. Card limit: 5 items
      4. Checkout period for books: 60 days
      5. Checkout period for AV: 60 days
      6. Card fee: $100.00 per year
    1. Study Guides—study guides for the Police Officer Selection Test (POST) are held in the Course Reserve area for the Dixie State University Testing Center. The study guide is made available for individuals who intend to take the POST exam. They will show a valid Utah driver’s license or other appropriate picture ID.
      1. Library card: none
      2. Expiration: none
      3. Card limit: 1 POST Study Guide
      4. Checkout period for study guide: 1 hour
      5. Card fee: none

Collection Development

I. Introduction

The collection development policy of the Dixie State University Library attempts to outline the selection criteria and standards used in the acquisition of all library resources. Within the context of this policy, the term “collection development” is understood to encompass the selection of both materials owned by and housed in the library and those electronic resources to which the library provides access.

In order to keep the library’s policies responsive to changes in library science, technology, institutional goals and objectives, the curriculum and the college population, this policy will be revised and updated as necessary.

II. Mission and Goals

Mission: To provide access to sufficient information to support the scholarship, teaching and research programs of the university.

Goal 1.0 Ensure that the library collection provides sufficient information and materials, in multiple formats, to support the curriculum of the university.
Goal 2.0 Provide general information; recreational reading materials; and support for faculty and student research, utilizing electronic information retrieval and resource sharing.
Goal 3.0 Provide materials to meet the cultural and intellectual needs of the community.
Goal 4.0 Be actively involved in planning library support for any new curriculum or extension of four-year programs on the campus.
Goal 5.0 Participate in cooperative collection development and resource sharing especially in cooperation with UALC (Utah Academic Library Council).
Goal 6.0 Ensure a high quality collection through ongoing evaluation.
Goal 7.0 Ensure effective funding for collection development.

III. General Policies

A. Clientele

The primary clientele of the library is the university faculty, students and staff. Secondary clientele includes the people, agencies, institutions, and businesses of the surrounding area.

B. Priorities and Criteria

The needs of the library’s users for materials and electronic resources will often exceed the capacity of the library to meet those demands. The library applies consistent practices and priorities in the expenditure of its finite resources. It projects use from the frequency of use of similar materials in the recent past and assesses their value through consultation with the appropriate faculty members. During the selection process, these priority levels are applied to potential acquisitions:

Priority 1 Materials necessary to support the current university curriculum and items which should be part of any standard collection.
Priority 2 Materials to support research and enhance teaching and learning.
Priority 3 Materials desirable for collection enrichment and balance.

The following criteria are used in the selection of library resources:

The library will forego the purchase of specialized or infrequently used materials if they can be readily borrowed through interlibrary loan or acquired through document delivery.

C. Multiple Copies

Requests for duplicate copies are reviewed individually, but, in general, the library refrains from the purchase of duplicate copies of any given item, except where the practice is clearly justified by heavy use or for inclusion in Special Collections. The library’s responsibility for ensuring availability of titles assigned for collateral reading, viewing, listening, etc. in specific courses is limited, except in unusual circumstances, to two copies that can be placed on reserve.

D. Exclusions
  1. The library will not purchase extensive in-depth material for specific thesis topics either for students or faculty unless these materials are appropriate for use by the general student body.
  2. The library will not purchase materials that are for departmental use only.
  3. Textbooks will not be purchased or added to the collection unless the instructor identifies the title as being the best source of information on the topic.
  4. As space and staff are limited, the library will not become a government depository, but instead, individual titles will be selected judiciously to fit the collection and will be cataloged.
E. Languages

The library normally acquires materials in languages other than English only in support of either language curricula or reference needs (e.g., dictionaries, etc.)

F. Material Gifts/Donations
  1. The library encourages the donations of books, monographs and other materials and will accept donations of books and other materials that support the curricular and research needs of the university. The library reserves the right to utilize donated materials in whatever way best benefits the collections and services. Applying the same criteria to individual items as it uses in purchasing new materials, the library selectively adds gifts/donations to its collection based on this collection development document.
  2. By direction of the IRS, the library cannot legally appraise gifts/donations for tax or inheritance purposes nor offer to pay for them when private persons tender them. If a substantial collection is involved, the library may help the donor to procure a professional appraiser.
  3. The library does not accept gifts with conditions as to their deposition or location except by permission of the library director on a case-by-case basis with a view of making the material available to researchers within the parameters of the restrictions.
  4. Gift/donated materials not added are returned to the donor, if requested. Donors are responsible for retrieving materials not added if they have made the request to have them returned. Materials not added may also be disposed of by sale (with proceeds to benefit the library), gift, trade, recycled, or donated to other libraries or institutions.
  5. The library will not accept periodicals that duplicate what is already part of the library holdings and/or are not indexed in any of the library’s indexes.
  6. Letter to the donor will acknowledge donations of gift books, if the name and address of the donor is known. Gift plates, which include the donor’s name, may be placed in each gift book selected for inclusion if such action is decided upon between the library director and the donor.

Materials that fall within the following categories are not added generally to the collection:

Generally, the library does not arrange for pick up of materials that are being donated. The exception can be materials to be added to Special Collections/Archives.

The accepting librarian or the library secretary will complete the Gift-In-Kind Donation Form. The donor will sign the Donor Information Form. Either the Gift-In-Kind Donation Form or the Donor Information Form will be sent to the Institutional Development office, as required. A letter of acknowledgement, including a list of the materials donated, as requested, will be sent to the donor.

If the donation cannot be utilized by the library, the potential donor may be referred to other organizations such as:

G. Copyright

The use of all materials will conform to copyright regulations.

IV. Selection Process

Librarians and faculty cooperate to develop the collection. The selection process is coordinated by the library director and all librarians who serve as liaisons to academic departments. The library director is responsible for monitoring the budget for purchase of materials. Recommendations for purchase are accepted from faculty, staff and students.

Recommendations for major purchases and for all serial subscriptions, database subscriptions, and standing orders must be submitted to liaisons in the library for consideration. Final responsibility for the selection of library resources lies with the librarians.

V. Policies by Format

A. Books
  1. Hardbacks vs paperbacks

    Most books are purchased in hardback based on anticipated use and long-term value of the title. Items of peripheral interest, low use or for recreational reading may be purchased in paperback.

  2. Out-of-print

    A reasonable effort is made to purchase out-of-print materials if demand warrants.

  3. Textbooks

    In general, books used as textbooks for courses are not aquired for the collection.

  4. Curriculum materials

B. Periodicals and Newspapers
  1. Periodicals

    Curriculum needs are met primarily through onsite availability of print subscriptions and full text electronic databases, supplemented by interlibrary loan. These resources also support faculty research.

    Decisions to add new periodical subscriptions are generally made once a year. Justification for new requests is required; such requests are considered based upon criteria enumerated in III. B-F and upon the following factors:

    1. Purpose:

      • Support of curriculum development
      • Support of general library use
      • Support of the collection development process
      • Support of current awareness or faculty research interests
    2. Cross-disciplinary usefulness

    3. Availability of indexing

    4. Availability of alternative access methods (electronic full text, interlibrary loan, etc.)

    5. Budget considerations

    Backfiles of periodicals are considered on a title by title basis and are generally acquired in microform. Factors which are taken into consideration in acquiring periodicals in microform are:

  2. Newspapers

    The library acquires a limited number of newspapers covering local, state and national news.

C. Audiovisual

Materials are acquired only in formats for which equipment is available. Standard selection criteria apply. The library does not pay preview charges. Audiovisual materials produced by faculty, staff and students are reviewed in consultation with faculty and are added to the permanent collection when they meet the needs of the collection and are of high technical quality.

D. Miscellaneous materials
  1. Maps

    Maps of Utah, topographic maps of contiguous states, historical maps and other selected maps (highway maps of the west) are collected.

  2. Musical scores

    Musical scores are acquired to support theater department productions along with selected popular scores for community use.

  3. Theses and dissertations

    Theses and dissertations are solicited from faculty members and placed in Special Collections.

  4. Government documents

    The library is not a government depository library. Documents are individually selected as they meet the criteria applied to monographs and serials. Availability of access to government documents through the Internet is also taken into consideration.

    State documents meeting the needs of the campus or community are acquired and are evaluated using general selection criteria.

    Historical documents from government entities in Washington County are held in Special Collections and Archives, which is the Regional Repository for the county on behalf of the Utah State Historical Records Advisory Board.

VI. Other Collections

A. Reference

The library maintains an authoritative, timely and balanced collection of non-circulating reference materials and provides access to a variety of electronic resources. The purposes of this collection are threefold:

  1. To aid the library, as a teaching library, in instructing students in the use of specialized tools relevant to their majors, and to expose them to the full variety of resources available to students.
  2. To serve the research needs of the library’s users.
  3. To serve the university, as well as its larger community, as a reference and referral center for a broad spectrum of factual reference inquires, not necessarily related to the university curricula.
B. Archives

The university archive is charged to preserve the historical records of the university, to facilitate effective record management, and to serve historical research and scholarship. To accomplish this objective, the archive acquires all non-current university records with administrative, legal, financial or historical value as determined by the archivist in consultation with the office of origin for such documents. Materials acquired include not merely the files of each campus unit, but also information about the university, such as iconography, ephemera, tape & disc recordings, as well as faculty non-book publications. For more information see the “Accessions Policy for Special Collections and Archives.”

C. Special Collections

Special collections collects works by selected authors with local ties (i.e. Juanita Brooks, Karl A. Larson, Lyman Hafen, etc.) or that relate to the history of the area. Gifts of rare books or significant first editions that complement the library’s general collection are also accepted. For more information see the “Accessions Policy for Special Collections and Archives.”

VII. Collection Evaluation

In order to maintain a viable and useful collection and to assure adequate space for its housing, the library systematically weeds parts of the collection. Materials, which have become obsolete, are no longer relevant, or are in poor physical condition are reviewed for discard, replacement, or repair. See Weeding Guidelines.

Cost and availability of human resources, as well as space needs, are factors considered before any weeding of the collection is undertaken.

The weeding process is the responsibility of the librarians, in consultation with the appropriate faculty, and is an ongoing component of collection development.

VIII. Interlibrary Cooperation and Collection Development

As stated previously, the library recognizes that the needs of its users for resources will often exceed the funding available to meet those demands. This discrepancy is particularly apparent in areas of relatively low collection development priority. (See Section III.B.) In order to satisfy many of these special needs, the library participates in cooperative arrangements with other libraries including reciprocal borrowing privileges with other Utah academic libraries. Specialized research materials are supplied primarily through interlibrary loan.

The library also cooperates with other Utah academic libraries for the purpose of resource sharing. One way in which this is done is to attempt to build a collection, which complements rather than duplicates that of other academic libraries in the southern part of the state. Participation in direct interlibrary loan arrangements with Utah academic libraries enables the library to fill many interlibrary loan requests quickly.

VIV. Weeding

A necessary and essential practice in any library is that of regularly weeding the collection of materials. Weeding is the evaluation process whereby materials are examined by subject specialists/librarians for potential removal (donated, distributed, recycled or discarded at the discretion of the library) from the collection to foster effectiveness, maintain viability, and maximize usefulness. Many factors influence the decision making process involved but, in general, the process is done with the teaching and research requirements of the institution in mind. An additional benefit derived from proper and regular weeding of print materials is the freeing up of shelf space for new materials.

Criteria used for weeding includes, but is not limited to the following:

Course Reserve Rules & Procedures

(This document as a Microsoft Word file)

Materials may be placed on Course Reserve only by an instructor of a Dixie State University credit-bearing course. Materials placed on Reserve will be provided by the instructor or department, and the reserve must be solely for the noncommercial, educational use of the students enrolled in that class. Materials received through Interlibrary Loan (ILL) may not be placed on reserve. Placement of materials may be limited by space available in the Reserve area.

The library will follow the principles of fair use when placing materials on Course Reserve and may deny placement of materials if obvious violations of the provisions of fair use are found.

Copyright and Fair Use for Course Reserve

Copyright law balances the intellectual property interests of authors, publishers, and copyright owners with society’s need for the free exchange of ideas. The fair use provision of the U.S. Copyright Act allows reproduction and other uses of copyrighted works under certain conditions for purposes such as criticism, teaching, scholarship, or research.

The library policy for reserve is derived from the fair use provisions of the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976. Section 107 permits making multiple copies for classroom use under specific circumstances without payment of royalty or permission from the copyright holders.

Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act provides four factors to use in determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is fair use. All four of these factors are considered in determining whether use of a copyrighted work is “fair use.”

Instructor Responsibility

Each instructor is responsible for guaranteeing that material requested for Course Reserve falls under the fair use guidelines of the U.S. Copyright Act.

Each instructor is responsible for obtaining necessary copyright permissions and/or paying fees for the use of copyrighted materials if appropriate.

Each instructor must sign the library Course Reserve Request document declaring that the material being placed on Course Reserve falls under fair use guidelines or that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder to use that material.

It is instructor responsibility to have correct materials for study and assignments, and students are responsible for knowing which materials they require.

Examples of Materials

Typical Reserve materials include: textbooks, books, DVDs, CDs, photocopies of tests or other materials, and workbooks. The source of photocopies from a book, journal article, etc. must be clearly identified, and photocopies must be “best copy” quality, single-sided, and on 8.5 x 11 paper.

Examples of materials which are not subject to copyright restrictions:

Examples of materials for which copyright permission must be sought before placing on reserve:

Putting Materials on Reserve

Materials may be placed on Course Reserve by instructors of Dixie State University. These materials may be owned by the instructor or pulled from library shelves, but the library does not purchase materials to specifically put on Reserve.

The materials must be accompanied by a Course Reserve Request form. The form can be accessed online by following this link or requested at the circulation desk. The instructor must fill out a form for each class, and bring it to the Circulation Desk with the materials. Multiple materials may be placed on one form for each class.

It is recommended that all materials be placed on reserve for “in-library use only” unless there are multiple copies of the item.

Examples of materials that are acceptable for reserve include: textbooks, magazines, files, and similar materials. Reserve items do not include equipment or tools of any kind. Materials must be easily shelved in our Reserve shelving and easily handled by our workers. Special requests will be considered by library staff on a case by case basis.

Materials are processed in the order they are received. If you would like to be certain your reserve materials are on reserve in time for intended use, please bring materials a minimum of three days in advance of the date needed for checkout.

Removing Materials from Reserve

A form for removal of materials will be provided at the circulation desk for reserve removal. Please track and review your reserve items from semester to semester and remove those that are not being used in the current semester. If unused reserve items continue to be left on reserve, library personnel reserve the right to remove them for you and advise you of removal status.

It is the instructor’s responsibility to come to the Circulation Desk and personally request that reserve items be removed from the Reserve Desk. If you wish to have a student or other assistant remove materials from reserve, an advance phone call conveying instructor permission to the Reserve Supervisor is mandatory.

If you have any questions about reserve procedures, please contact us at (435) 652-7715.

Interlibrary Loan (ILL)


Interlibrary loan is the process by which a library requests materials from, or supplies materials to, another library, through mail or electronic delivery, and when the requested materials are not held by the requesting library.

Rules & Procedures:

Charges for interlibrary loan materials:

DSU faculty/staff/students are not charged for interlibrary loan materials, unless a user fee is assessed by the lending institution, or the materials are not returned or returned damaged and are assessed replacement and processing fees by the lending institution.

Materials Reconsideration Forms

The following forms are used for making a request that library materials be withdrawn from the collection.

Reconsideration of Library Materials Form

Action on Materials Reconsideration Request

Special Collections Accessions

Special Collections acquires and accepts donations of local, family, and historical materials related to the geographically contiguous areas of Washington County, Utah; the Arizona Strip; and the Big Muddy region of Nevada, as well as materials documenting the history of Dixie State University. This also includes items pertaining to LDS polygamy, the LDS Church, and Utah history with a focus on Southern Utah generally and Southwestern Utah specifically. Materials accepted and acquired include books, manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, and artifacts as space and resources allow. Copies of items significant to the collecting areas listed above will be accepted as a last resort when an original cannot be obtained.

In the case of audio cassettes, DVDs, Blu-ray discs, vinyl records, digital files, and other analog and digital formats that may present difficulties for preservation or access, Special Collections weighs the value of the information contained against the challenges presented by the format and will make decisions on a case-by-case basis.

A donor should hold ownership rights and (where necessary) copyright for the material if the material is not in the public domain and will be asked to sign a release form transferring ownership and copyright to the Dixie State University Library. The donor holds all responsibility for determining ownership and copyright of the material. Dixie State University does not conduct appraisals of material for tax or other purposes.

An initial assessment of materials and their suitability for the collection will be conducted by the Special Collections Librarian/Archivist prior to acceptance of any donation.

Special Collections actively seeks to obtain grants and also accepts monetary donations through the Dixie State University Development Office toward maintenance of collections, transcribing oral histories, and special projects to enhance access to the collections.